Role of Minerals in Human nutrition - II Greetings to all of you, Gosh, it feels as if it was yesterday that newsletter No 43 went out. Hope you are all well! Without further ado, let's carry on. SODIUM. Sodium is utilized in the formation of digestive juices and in the elimination of carbon dioxide. It is needed in the osmotic pressure, maintenance of water balance, and proper nerve function as well as the utilization of iron. A deficiency can result in indigestion, arthritis, rheumatism, and in gallbladder and kidney stones, muscle cramps, and nausea. Unofficial estimates place daily needs at 500 mg Sodium chloride (Table salt ) is not a good source of organic sodium and is poisonous to the body. Good sources are: Strawberries, Celery, Carrots, Raisins, Beets, Sesame seeds, Sunflower seeds, Broccoli, Melons, Cabbage, Lettuce, Peaches. FLOURINE. Flourine is found in the bones, teeth, nails, blood, skin, and hair. It is essential to the body's healing process. A lack of fluorine in the diet can result in tooth decay, weakened eyesight and spinal curvature. No recommended allowance exist for fluorine. The following foods contain high amounts of organic fluorine: Almonds, Carrots, Vegetable greens, exists in some quantities in all plants. MAGNESIUM. Magnesium is found in the blood albumen, bones and teeth. It is employed in carbohydrate metabolism and elimination. Magnesium is necessary for strengthening the nerves and muscles and conditioning the liver and glands. A lack of Magnesium contributes to nervous conditions and irritability, a poor complexion, heartbeat acceleration, digestive disorders, and soft bones. The following are recommendations are made by the national academy Of Science (USA) Infants 60 - 70 mg Children ( 1-4 years ) 150 mg ( 4-6 years ) 200 mg ( 7-10 years ) 250 mg Males ( 11-14 years 350 mg ( 15-18 years ) 400 mg ( 19 & older ) 350 mg All Females 300 mg Pregnant & Nursing Mothers 450 mg Good food sources of Magnesium are: Almonds, Cherries, Bananas, Walnuts, Raisins, Raspberries, Mangoes, Cherries, Green vegetable leaves, Beets, Avos, Pears, broccoli, Cantaloupe. IRON. Iron is found primarily in the hemoglobin of the body and is closely connected to the quality of the blood About 2/3 of all the iron in the body is in the bloodstream, with the remainder distributed in the marrow of the bone, the liver and the spleen. Iron is also used in the building of the bones, brain and muscle and the carrying of oxygen throughout the body. He most dramatic effect of iron deficiency is anemia and paleness of complexion and results in limited growth and low vitality level. The official recommended daily allowances for iron are: Children ( 1-3 years ) 150 mg ( 4-10 years ) 10 mg Males ( 11-18 ) 18 mg Males ( Adult ) 10 mg Females ( 11-50 years ) 180mg Females ( 51 + ) 10 mg The following are good sources of organic iron: sesame seeds, Peaches, Apricots, Raisins, Walnuts, Almonds, Dates, Figs, Green vegetable leaves, Lettuce, mung bean sprouts, Broccoli, Berries, Cherries. MANGANESE. Chiefly found in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, prostate gland, adrenals, brain and bones. It is used in the metabolism of carbohydrates, and in strengthening tissue & Bone. Manganese, like iodine, is used in thyroxine formation in the thyroid and also seems to be connected with regulation of the blood sugar level. The National Academy of Science has officially stated that no one has observed a manganese deficiency in humans and no official recommendations are made. Food sources are: Bananas, Beets, Celery, Cucumbers, Leafy vegetables, Carrots, Squash, Nuts. SILICON. Found in the blood, muscles, skin, nerves, nails, hair, connective tissue and teeth. The pancreas is especially rich in silicon. Silicon is also noted for its antiseptic action. Insufficient silicon in the body may result in boldness or the graying of hair. Skin irritations and rashes may develop easily, Hearing and vision and teeth may be affected. No official allowance has been determined for silicon. Silicon is often concentrated in the skins and outer layer of vegetables and fruits. Good sources are : Lettuce, Strawberries, Cucumbers, Sunflower seeds, Celery, Cherries, Apricots, Figs, Pears, beets, carrots, Tomatoes, Cabbage, watermelons, Apples, bananas, Grapes. COPPER. Found in the liver, gallbladder, lungs and heart, primarily for the absorption and metabolism of iron. A deficiency in copper results in the same effects as iron deficiency, such as retarded hemoglobin production, general debility. Limited growth etc Very few cases of copper depletion have been observed in humans and there are no official daily recommendation. The following foods contain a significant amount of copper: Nuts, Raisins, Leafy vegetables, Sunflower seeds, Sesame seeds. IODINE. Found mainly in the thyroid gland and is essential in the formation of an organic iodine compound called thyroxine, which regulates some of the metabolic functions. Iodine is required in the oxidation of fats and proteins and for circulatory functioning. A iodine deficiency is partially responsible for goiter ( the enlargement of the thyroid gland ) and subnormal metabolism. It also leads to sensitivity to toxic accumulation, low physical & mental activity and susceptibility to nervous disorders. Daily Dietary needs are very small: Infants ( 0-5 months ) 0.035 mg ( 5-12 months ) 0.045 mg Children ( 1-3 years ) 0.060 mg ( 4-6 years ) 0.080 mg ( 7-10 years ) 0.110 mg Males ( 11-14 years ) 0.130 mg ( 15-18 years ) 0.150 mg ( 19-22 years ) 0.140 mg ( 23-50 years ) 0.130 mg ( 51 + ) 0.110 mg Females ( 11-18 years ) 0.115 mg ( 19-50 years ) 0.100 mg Pregnant & Nursing Mothers 0.125 - 0.150 mg Iodine is found in high amounts in all sea vegetables. Also good sources are Turnip greens, Squash, Mustard greens, Watermelon, Cucumbers, Spinach, Pineapples, Strawberries, Peaches, Lettuce, Bananas, Carrots, Tomatoes, grapes. ZINC. Found in the brain, genital organs, Thyroid, liver and kidneys. It is needed in the healing of wounds and in the transfer of carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs. It is also required in the manufacturing of insulin and in the regulation of blood sugar. A lack of zinc may result in mental depression, prostate trouble, absence of taste as well as defective intestinal absorption and restricted growth. Daily recommendations are : Infants ( 0-5 months ) 3 mg ( 5-12 months ) 5 mg Children ( 1-10 years ) 10 mg Adults 15 mg Pregnant and Nursing Mothers 20-25 mg Zinc is found in the following foods: All Seeds & Nuts especially pumpkin seeds, Sprouted wheat. Most green and yellow vegetables This letter is getting a bit too long so, with your permission, let's leave the conclusion for next week, shall we?